Dialogue in Spanish
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Spanish Conversations for Beginners
When any sentence of the imperfect subjunctive begins without a conditional conjunction, it can be used indistinctly from the first or second ending, saying: luckily, or it would rain: good, or it would be that they commanded it: I would do, or I would make them obey .
Quando begins with some conditional conjunction, such as: if, but, but is that, but is when, without, although, even when, provided that: it can be used of the first or third ending saying: if there were, or there would be good faith: if there were not, or there was no war: although there was, or there was peace.
When, by virtue of the first rule, the first or second ending would have been used, and another verb of the same preterite is required to perfect the meaning, the latter must be used in the third ending: v. g. I would come, or would come with pleasure in what you ask me, if I could. And when by virtue of the second rule the first or third ending has already been used, the second must be used in the following verb, which perfects the sense: v. g. If I could, or could, I would gladly come to what you ask of me.
It follows from all that the second and third endings are always used in a different sense, and serve to signify the two extremes of the condition.
With the adverb oxalá it is not possible to use the second ending, but rather the first or third, and thus it is said: oxalá it would rain, or it would rain; but no: hopefully it would rain.
When the imperfect subjunctive preterit has before it, as a determiner, one of the three indicative preterites, and this determining verb is one of those that explain what is said with the tongue, or is conceived with the understanding: it is used of the Determined subjunctive verb in any of its three endings:
decia - vinieras
dixo - vendrias
habia dicho - que - vinieses
pensaba - viniera
pensó - vendria
habia pensado - viniese
If the preterite of the indicative is of any verb that explains will, it must be used of the imperfect preterite of the subjunctive in the first or third ending, and not of the second:
queria - yo viniera, ó viniese
quiso - que - tú vinieras, ó vinieses
habia querido - él viniera, ó viniese
These six rules can serve as some help to properly use the imperfect subjunctive endings: difficult point of our Grammar, and that in addition to these rules requires careful observation of the use it has in good authors, and among those who they speak well.
Conversational Spanish Dialogues
It has seemed convenient to form a separate article for this part of the verb, since its meaning is very varied, and it is used very frequently in our language; and it has also seemed not to remove him from the articles dealing with the tenses of the verb, because the gerund together with some words commonly means tense: in this form.
Gerund is a voice of Grammar taken from the Latin verb gero (I bring); and it is called that because it brings with it the meaning of the verb from which it comes, such as: to love, to love, to fear, to fear, to depart from. The gerund by itself does not mean time, and needs another verb to determine it, such as: speaking Pedro, its opposite arrived: where the gerund speaking corresponds to the imperfect indicative past tense, because the same is saying speaking, as: when speaking.
Without varying in meaning, this gerund, and its similar ones, can precede the gerund of the verb estar: v. g. while Pedro was speaking, his opposite came: while eating, they gave me your letter.
When the gerund of the auxiliary verb haber has some passive participle after it, these two words acquire the value of the past perfect of the verb to which the participle corresponds, such as: having said this, he kept silent; because the same is true: having said, that: after he said.
The gerund of all verbs means time in some expressions: v. g. Reynando Carlos III, this bridge was made. Being Corregidor N. this road was made; Well, the same is to say: reigning, and being, that: when he reigned, or was, or at the time he reigned, or was.
Other times it means time, and condition: v. g. that being true: having that circumstance: being that ascertained: reading that way.
These gerunds can be resolved by a tense of the verb to which the gerund belongs, and by the conditional particle si, saying: if that is true: if there is that circumstance: if that is ascertained: if it is read that way.
If you have never studied Spanish before, you should go to: Spanish for Beginners - Spanish 101
Spanish Conversation Transcripts
Gerunds have their own value when they are preceded by the preposition in: in being: in being: in having: in reading, since they can be resolved by tenses of their verbs, and particles, such as: when, or if: when , or if it were: when there is, or if there were: when it is read, or if it is read.
Other times the act, habit, or exercise of what the verb from which it is formed means is denoted with the gerund: v. g. studying you learn: serving -p. 86- God earns Heaven, and then they are worth the same as if it were said: by studying one learns: by serving God one earns Heaven.
Our verbs do not have their own passive voice like the Latins, who expressed it with a single voice with a different ending than the active one, and thus their active voice in the verb to love was, I love: I love; and the passive love: I am loved.
Our language, which cannot express the passive with a single voice, uses a detour to achieve it: in this form.
It takes all the modes, tenses, numbers, and persons of the substantive verb to be, with the same ones that it needs from the auxiliary verb to have, and adds to them the passive participle of the verb in question: v. g. If it is the verb to love, and you want to express its passive, you say: Yo soy, tú eres, él es - amado.
And so it goes throughout the conjugation.
In the third persons of inanimate things, the passive is also usually expressed with the pronoun se: v. g. Peace was made, for the same reason that: peace was made: riches are loved, for the same reason that: riches are loved.
The simple or proper tenses of regular verbs are formed from the infinitive. Compounds or impropers do not have a particular formation, but a general one, which is already explained. All the infinitives of our verbs end in ar, er, or ir, and these three infinitive endings constitute our three first, second, and third conjugations in the same order.
Each one of them forms its tenses with other endings that the persons have after those radical letters that are invariable in all the moods, tenses, numbers, and persons of each one of the regular verbs; and this variety of endings is what is called conjugation.
These endings of the persons, although they are different in each conjugation with respect to another, are uniform in all the regular verbs that comprise any of them: in such a way that the verbs to love, to teach, to advise (which are of the first conjugation) must have same ending in people of equal times: v. g. in the present singular indicative:
1. amo, enseño, aconsejo.
2. amas, enseñas, aconsejas.
3. ama, enseña, aconseja.
And all the conjugation follows this format.
Regular verbs are those that always keep a rule in conjugation, that is, that have certain radical letters at the beginning, that do not change, nor alter in any way, time, number, or person of the verb that is conjugated, (with the exception of the precise mutations required by the Orthography) and certain endings at the end, which although they are specific to each person, are common to all the verbs that their conjugation embraces.