The Many Types of Pronouns  

Spanish Pronouns

We shall divide the Personal Pronouns into Subject Pronouns and Object
Pronouns.[1]
Footnote 1: Grammarians often give the names:
  • Nominative case for the Subject pronouns
  • Accusative case for the Direct object pronouns
  • Dative case for the Indirect object pronouns]
Subject Pronouns
Yo (I) Nosotros,-as (we)
Tú (thou) Vosotros,-as (you)
Él (he, or it, m.) Ellos,-as (they)
Ella (she, or it, f.) Ello (neuter),
(it, referring to a
whole statement)

Instead of "Tú" or "Vosotros,-as," V. and Vs. are used in general
conversation as already stated (the verb following in the 3rd person).

These pronouns are left understood when no emphasis is required or
where no ambiguity is possible, as:

    (Yo) compro las telas: I buy the cloths.
    (Él) gira las letras y firma las cartas: He draws the bills and signs the letters.
    (Ella) ha tenido una entrevista con su abogado: She has had an interview with her barrister, lawyer or solicitor.

But--

    Yo he comprado la partida de ferretería y quincalla y no V.: I have
    bought the lot of ironware and small ware and not you.
Object Pronouns
These are divided into two classes--
1. Disjunctive, viz., following a preposition.
Mí (me) Nosotros-as (us)
Tí (thee) Vosotros-as (you)
Él (him, it, m.) Ellos-as (them)
Ella (her, it, f.) Ello (neuter) (it, referring to a whole statement)
V. (you, sing.) Vs. (you, pl.)

Examples:

Ellos hablan de mí: They speak of me.
Nosotros trabajamos para él: We work for him.
Ella confía en tí, en V.: She trusts thee, you.
V. se declara contra ellos: You declare against them.

2. Conjunctive, viz., direct or indirect object of verb (without a preposition).
Él me[2] ama he loves me
Él nos ama he loves us
Él te ama he loves thee
Él os ama he loves you
Él lo or le ama he loves him, it, m.
Él los ama he loves them,m.
Él la ama he loves her, or it, f.
Él las ama he loves them, f.

Examples

Él me da he gives me (to me)
Él te da he gives thee (to thee)
Él le da he gives him (to him), her (to her), it (to it)
Él nos da he gives us (to us)
Él os da he gives you (to you)
Él les da he gives them (to them, m. and f.)
Footnote 2: In the conjunctive form the 1st and 2nd persons are
the same for both direct and indirect objects, but the 3rd pers.
differs.]
The direct and indirect object of verb may also be rendered by the
pronoun in the Disjunctive form preceded by á, as:
á mí me or to me direct and indirect object
á tí thee or to thee direct and indirect object
á él him or to him, direct and indirect object
it (m.) or direct and indirect object
to it (m.) direct and indirect object
á ella her or to her, direct and indirect object
it (f.) or direct and indirect object
to it (f.) direct and indirect object
á nosotros-as us or to us direct and indirect object
á vosotros-as you or to you direct and indirect object
á ellos them or direct and indirect object
to them (m.) direct and indirect object
á ellas them or direct and indirect object
to them (f.) direct and indirect object

We have then a double form for the pronouns used as direct and indirect object of verb--one Conjunctive, the other Disjunctive.

The Conjunctive form is that in general use.

The Disjunctive form is employed when emphasis or distinctness is required. It is seldom used alone,[3] Spaniards preferring to use it as a repetition after having used the Conjunctive form, as:

Él me ama á mí: He loves me.

Él nos vende á nosotros géneros estampados y á V. géneros de fantasía.
He sells to us printed cloth and to you fancies.

Yo le quiero ver á él y no á ella:
I wish to see him and not her.

Déle V. el dinero á él y los libros á ella.
Give him the money and her the books.
Dé V. el dinero á él y los libros á ella.
Give him the money and her the books.

Footnote 3: In sentences like "Le pagarán más que á mí" (they will pay
him more than me), "me pagarán" is understood after que.



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