Reflexive Pronouns  

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are not, of course, used as subject of the verb. They are used as the object of the verb when this and the subject are the same.

They are the same as the other personal pronouns, as:

Conjunctive form. Disjunctive form.
myself me
thyself te
Exception
3rd person for both genders & numbers:
se
Examples

Él se ama: He loves himself.
Ella se atribuye la culpa: She attributes the fault to herself.
María habla siempre de sí[1]: Mary is always talking about herself.
Nosotros nos divertimos al mismo tiempo que hacemos negocios: We enjoy ourselves at the same time as we do business.
Ellos se respetan á sí y á otros también: They respect themselves and others too.

Mismo-a,-os,-as, may be added to the disjunctive form for emphasis,
as:

  • María habla siempre de sí misma: Mary always speaks of herself.
  • Ella se atribuye la culpa: She attributes the fault to herself.
  • Ella se atribuye la culpa á sí: She attributes the fault to herself. (more emphatic).
  • Ella se atribuye la culpa á sí misma: She attributes the fault to herself (still more emphatic).
Footnote 1: After "con" (with) "si" becomes Sigo; same change with
"mí" and "tí": conmigo, contigo, consigo, written in one word.
The pronoun Se with any verb in the 3rd pers. sing. or plural may be
used to form the passive voice, as:
  • Se ha cerrado el almacén: The warehouse has been closed.
  • Se han encaminado las reclamaciones á la Compañía de Seguros[2]: The claims have been referred to the Insurance Company.
Footnote 2: This form is preferable when the "doer" is not mentioned.
Se followed by a verb in the 3rd pers. sing.[3] translates the
English "one," "people," "they" (indefinite), as the French "on" and
the German "man," as:
  • Se dice que habrá un alza[4] en el mercado: They say, or it is said, that there will be a rise in the market.
  • Se cree que no habrá Reforma Arancelaria en Inglaterra: People think, or it is thought, that there will not be Tariff Reform in England.
  • En la vejez se goza el fruto de una juventud laboriosa: In old age one enjoys the fruits of active youth or The fruits of active youth are enjoyed in old age.
Footnote 3: Or we can use the 3rd pers. plur. of the verb without the
pronoun.
Footnote 4: Or "una alza" (both used).
As will be seen, this is really a form of the passive voice rendered by
"se," as "se goza" instead of "es gozado." But there are more typical
Examples, as:
  • Los géneros se han fabricado en Irlanda y se los ha (not han) plegado como lienzos irlandeses: The goods were made in Ireland and they folded them as Irish Linens.

A Conjunctive Reflexive Pronoun, whether direct or indirect object,
always precedes any other conjunctive pronoun, as:

  • Yo me lo reservo: I reserve it for myself.
  • Nosotros nos lo guardamos: We keep it for ourselves.
  • Se me dice: It is said to me (it says itself to me).
  • Se les venden las telas: The cloths are sold to them.
  • Nosotros nos le confiamos: We entrust ourselves to him.
  • Vosotros os les empeñasteis en £1,000: You pledged yourselves to them for £1,000.
Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense.[5]
Hablar Temer Partir
Que yo hablase (that I might, should or would speak, etc.) Temiese (that I might, should, or would fear, etc.) Partiese (that I might, should or would depart, etc.)
" tú hablases Temieses Partieses
" él hablase Temiese Partiese
" nosotros hablásemos Temiésemos Partiésemos
" vosotros hablaseis Temieseis Partieseis
" ellos hablasen Temiesen Partiesen
Footnote 5: This tense is formed from the Past Def. by changing the termination "ron" of the 3rd pers. pl. into se, ses, se, semos, seis sen, in all the three conjugations.



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