Indefinite Adjectives and Pronouns  

Indefinite Pronouns

alguno - some
*alguien - somebody, anybody
*algo, alguna cosa - something, anything

*uno, una, unos, unas - one, a person, some, some persons
uno á otro - one another, each other
uno ú otro - one or the other, either
uno y otro, ambos, entrambos - both
ni uno ni otro - neither the one nor the other
ni uno - not a single one

los otros, los demás - the others
mismo - same, self
cierto-a,-os-as - a certain, certain

cada - each
*cada uno, *cada cual - each, each one

otro - other, another[1]
todo - all, everything, every
todos - everybody, all

poco - little
pocos - few
unos pocos, unos cuantos - a few

mucho-a,-os-as - much, many
varios - several

cualquiera - any, whichever
cualesquiera - any, whichever
*quienquiera - any, whoever, whomever
*quienesquiera - any, whoever, whomever
*cualquiera cosa - anything, whatever

propio, propioa, propios, propias - own, self, same
tal - such a
tales - such
*fulano, zutano, mengano - so-and-so

cuanto (todo lo que) - all that which
cuantos (todos los que) - all those who
ninguno - no one, nobody, not any
*nada - nothing
*nadie - no one, nobody
*quien ... quien, cual ... cual - some ... some

Those marked with an asterisk are pronouns only.

Footnote 1: "Another" is "otro," not "un otro."
Cada is an adjective only, as:

Cada huelga de obreros daña la industria nacional.
Each workmen's strike injures national industry.

Alguien, algo, cada, nada, nadie are invariable, and the verb accompanying them is always singular, as:

    Alguien hizo un error de pluma.
    Somebody made a slip of the pen.

    Algo es mejor que el dinero, el honor.
    There is something better than money, honor.

    ¿Hay algo peor que la ingratitud?
    Is there anything worse than ingratitude?

    Nada es absolutamente perfecto y nadie es infalible.
    Nothing is absolutely perfect and nobody is infallible.

Further difference in meaning between alguien and alguno--

Alguien refers to persons only, and cannot be followed by de.
Alguno to persons or things, and may be followed by de,[2] as:

    Alguien se ha quejado
    Somebody has complained.

    Alguno se ha quejado
    Somebody has complained.

    Quiere naranjas y melocotones y yo tengo algunos.
    He wants oranges and peaches, and I have some.

    Alguno de ellos lo hará.
    Someone amongst them will do it.

The English "any," "anything," are translated by alguno, alguna cosa (algo) when interrogative; ninguno, ninguna cosa (nada) when negative; and cualquiera, cualquiera cosa when affirmative, as:

    ¿Quiere algún refresco ó algo que comer?
    Do you want any refreshments[3] or anything to eat?

    No quiero ningunos tacos.
    I do not want any tacos.

    Cualquier(a) muchacho echaría de ver que estas bombillas son más ordinarias.
    Any kid could see that these light bulbs are of lower quality.

Alguno and Ninguno are left understood oftener than in English, as:

    ¿Comprará V. (algunos) títulos de la nueva emisión?
    Will you buy any stock of the new issue?

    Él no pide consejos.
    He does not ask any advice.

When nadie and ninguno, or any other negative word, as the adverb nunca (never), etc., precede a verb, no other negative is required; but when they follow it, no (not) must precede the verb, as: No he visto á nadie or á nadie he visto: I have seen nobody.

Footnote 2: Same difference between nadie and ninguno.]
Footnote 3: In Spanish the singular is found instead of the plural, as: ¿Tiene V. algún libro que prestarme? (have you any books to lend me?).]
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