Spanish Augmentative and Diminutive Terminations
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- Ball, balloon
- Book, booklet
- Lad, laddie
- Man, manikin
These terminations are frequent in Spanish, especially the diminutive.
On (m.), ona (f.) denote augmentation, as:
- Libro, book
- Librón, large book
- Un mujerón: A tall woman
Except when ambiguity might arise, as:
- Un muchachón: A tall or big boy Una muchachona: A tall or big girl.
ito (m.), ita (f.), ico (m.), ica (f.)
Denote diminution (to which an idea of endearment is always attached which is natural in Spanish when speaking of little objects in the ordinary way.)
If for any reason disparagement or insignificance is suggested then illo, illa, uelo, uela, are used instead.
Other terminations less used are azo, acho, onazo, achón, ote, astro, aco, and a few others (augmentative, suggesting (generally) disparagement); ete, in, ino, itito, itico, itillo, and a few others (diminutive). If a noun ends in a vowel, this is elided before adding the termination.
- Me dió dos librones gruesos y tres libritos delgados: He gave me two heavy big books and three small ones.
Students should use the terminations "on" and "ito" but no others until they become familiar with them with reading, as they cannot be used indiscriminately with all nouns.
The termination "azo" serves also to indicate an injury or explosion from a weapon, as:
- Un sablazo (a sabre-cut)
- Un puñetazo (a blow with the fist)
- Un navajazo (a stab with a knife)
- Un cañonazo (a cannon-shot)
With some weapons some other terminations are used:
- Una cuchillada (same as navajazo)
- Una paliza (a thrashing with a stick)
|Pres. Part.||Trayendo ("i" unstressed between two vowels always changes into "y")|
|Past Def.||Traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron|